As a mountainous country, more than half of Switzerland at an altitude of 1,200 meters. Ascona is the lowest region with an altitude of only 196 meters, while the highest point in Switzerland is a 4634 meter peak Dufour. About 100 peaks in the Swiss Alps has a height of more than 4,000 meters and more than 1,800 glacier above the snow line altitude of 2,500 meters. This then causes the later famous Swiss mountain tourism. About 60 percent of the Swiss tourist activities contained in the Alps Mountain.
Matterhorn is a mountain in the Swiss mountain 4.478 m high and has a pyramid shape whose four sides facing the four directions of the compass. Respectively the North and East facing East Valley and south-facing Swiss.Bagian Gornegrat in Breuil-Cervinia and the Dent d’Herens facing west, north and south and meet at the summit.
Matterhorn / Cervino is perhaps the best known mountain in the Alps in Europe. On the border between Switzerland and Italy, towers above the village of Zermatt in Switzerland and the village of Breuil-Cervinia, Italy, in Tournanche Val. This mountain has four faces, facing the four cardinal directions, respectively, to the north and south faces meeting to form a short summit ridge east-west. The faces are steep, and only a fraction of the snow and ice attached to it; avalanche of snow dropped on a regular basis and accumulate on the glacier at the base of each face.
Currently Matterhorn can be enjoyed by using the rail that has been built. some areas that have facilities that include Unterrothron and Klein Matterhorn (3.883 m). The Hornli Hut (3.260 m), starting from the normal route, the easiest access of frequently used Schwarzsee and climbers.
When standing at the top of the Matterhorn we’ll get to watch at least 38 mountain peaks of about 200 peaks in the Alps in the border regions of five countries, Switzerland, Austria, France, Germany and Italy. Because of the many advantages that make the Matterhorn become the most popular mountain in Switzerland.
Matterhorn is the peak of the last Alpine ditaklukankan and the first ascent marks the end of time Golden alpinism. ie in 1865 by an expedition led by Edward Whymper and ended tragically when the majority of its members fell. Among the three large surfaces north of the Alps. Matterhorn is one of the deadliest peaks in the Alps: from 1865 – when it was first climbed – up to 1995, 500 alpinists died on it.
Matterhorn become iconic emblem of the Swiss Alps and the Alps in general. Since the late nineteenth century, when the railway was built, attracting more visitors and climbers. Every summer many skilled mountaineers attempting to climb the Matterhorn via the north-east ridge Hörnli, the most frequented route to the summit.The mountain is named from the German words Matte, meaning meadow, and Horn, which means peak.
Matterhorn is an isolated mountain. Because of its position in the main Alpine watershed and a great height, the Matterhorn face of rapid climate change. Besides the steep mountain face and the remote location makes it susceptible to the formation of banner clouds with air flowing around and creates a vortex, to air condensation.
Matterhorn has two distinct peaks, both located on a rocky ridge 100 feet in length: the Swiss summit (4,477.5 m) to the east and the top of Italy (4,476.4 m) to the west. Their name comes from the first ascents not for geographic reasons, because both are located on the border. In August 1792, Geneva and geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure explorers made the first measurements of high Matterhorn, using a chain of 50-foot-long glacier spread over Theodul and a sextant.A recent survey (1999) using the Global Positioning System technology has been made, so that the height of the Matterhorn to be measured to within one centimeter accuracy, and the changes to be tracked. The result is 4,477.54 meters.
Matterhorn has a pyramidal shape with four faces facing the four cardinal directions: north and east faces, respectively, and the valley Zmutt Gornergrat ridge in Switzerland, faces south (just south of the Swiss-Italian border) resort town of Breuil-Cervinia, and the face looks westward Dent d’Hérens mountain that straddles the border.
North-facing valley The Zmutt, the Matterhorn is steep, and only a small patch of snow and ice attached; usual pile avalanches on the glacier at the base of each face, the largest glacier in western Zmutt. Hörnli back from the northeast (central ridge in the view from Zermatt) is the normal ascent route.
Famous faces are the east and north, seen from Zermatt. East face is 1,000 meters high, because it is “a slope, with the ruins of a high-risk, making the dangerous ascent. The north face is 1,200 meters high and is one of the most dangerous north face in the Alps, especially to the risk of debris and storm. South face is 1,350 meters high and offers a variety of routes. Faces west, the highest in the 1,400 meters, has the fewest climbing routes.
Railways and cable-car facilities have been constructed to reach the peaks in the region easier. Gornergrat railway, reached an altitude of 3,100 meters, inaugurated in 1898. Areas served by cable car is Unterrothorn and Klein Matterhorn (Little Matterhorn) (3883 m, the highest in the European transport system). Hörnli Hut (3260 m), which is the beginning of the normal route via the ridge Hörnli, easily accessible from Schwarzsee (2,600 m) and is also frequented by climbers. Both resorts of Zermatt and Cervinia as a function of ski resorts throughout the year and are linked by the skilifts Theodul Pass. A cable car runs from the Klein Matterhorn Testa Grigia currently planned for 2014. Will eventually provide a link between the Swiss and Italian side of Matterhorn
Museum Matterhorn (Zermatt) associated with the general history of alpinism and tourism areas. In the museum, which is in the form of a mountain village, where visitors can see the model on the first ascent of the Matterhorn and the tragic and see things the protagonist’s own.
Today, all the grooves and the face of the Matterhorn was climbed in all seasons, and mountain guides take a large number of people in northeastern Hörnli route each summer. By modern standards, the climb is quite difficult but not hard for skilled mountaineers. There are fixed ropes on parts of the route to help. However, several climbers die each year due to a number of factors including increased scale and its inherent dangers, experience, falling rocks, and crowded routes.
This mountain is one of the mountain is often climbed by far and tiring pendaki.Perjalanan not make the climbers are tired because when it comes to its tired, we can see the beautiful view and snow.