Africa is famous for the wild nature has a mount,mountain kilimanjaro.Gunung it has the most dashing across the continent stands on the high sea level and 5859 m.
Mount Kilimanjaro is an active stratavolcano located in Tanzania near the border with Kenya. Mount Kilimanjaro actually covers three volcanic cones, Shira, Kibo and Mawenzi. Summit Uhuru Peak on Kibo cone standing 19,340 feet. Interestingly, while only four of the continent and also the highest point down on the list of world’s highest peak, Kilimanjaro represents the largest increase in free-standing mountain in the world – 15, 100 meters from base to summit.
Mount Kilimanjaro is known ecology is very diverse with six different ecological zones. Nature lowest cultivated land where people have settled and the vegetation growing because the soil is rich. Between 6000 and 9200 feet, the terrain turned into a lush rain forest, which receives more than six feet of rain a year. Like the rain forests in general, Kilimanjaro rainforest is rich in both plant and animal life, including monkeys, leopards and antelopes. 9200-11000 feet of health zones are dominated by heather, grass and flowers there. Rose to around 11000-13200 feet, ecology transfer to Moorland, where a variety of small, thick as senecios plants and lobelias grow and the birds and wildlife to inhabit slightly. On top of Moorland and to 16 500 feet is known alpine desert blinding glare, scarce water and a significant temperature swings often ranging from below freezing at night to over 100 degrees F during the day. Only certain plants and algae can survive there and the animals pass through but do not make a home. Last zone is the peak, which is characterized by a glacier and a thin atmosphere. Some animal or plant life in the top reaches Kilimanjaro.
As one of the Seven Summits (the highest peak on each continent), Mount Kilimanjaro has long been a symbolic climb for mountaineers and trekkers. Geography does not have a top technical features make it easy to climb as many of the seven peaks of Mount Everest and other like Denali. The summit can be reached with a package of simple tools like sticks. The thin air can still inhibit several visits, however, they are in decent condition and cooling should be relatively easy to find the peak. A dozen top route service and allow for jaw-dropping, varied scenery. Mawenzi, Kibo even lower, offering a more difficult climb requiring climbing gear and techniques.
Endemic Plants of Kilimanjaro
Forests and pastures on the slopes of Kilimanjaro have unique vegetation such as cabbage save water. It is found in the Moorland zone. There are other plants such as purple haze marijuana and orange Cush adapted to living in alpine conditions.
Kilimanjaro has a wide variety of forest types graduated range of 3,000 m. This area contains more than 1200 species of vascular plants. Montane Ocotea forests are found in moist southern slopes, whereas Cassipourea and Juniperus forests grow in the drier northern slopes.
Subalpine Erica forests at 4100 m is the highest elevation cloud forests in East Africa. Although the high biodiversity, low levels of endemism. This is possible as a result of serious habitat depletion prior to completing the survey work or the young age of the Mount.
Former forest patches in the deepest valleys of the cultivated lower areas suggest that diverse flora inhabited Mt Kilimanjaro forest in the past. This includes species that are limited otherwise only found in Eastern Arc mountains.
Endemism is low on the mountain may be a result of damage to lowland forests as opposed to the relatively young age of the mountain.
Another unique characteristic of the forests on Mount Kilimanjaro is the lack of a belt of bamboo, which occurs in all the other mountains in East Africa compared with the same high rainfall. This may be related to the act of large herbivores such as elephants and buffalo. Standing Sinarundinaria often favored by elephants and buffaloes and herbivores are found on the northern slopes of Kilimanjaro. In the northern slopes were too dry for a large bamboo zone to develop. The animals were given greater access to the wet southern slope forests with steep topography and human existence. The local tribes have been cultivated on the slopes below and legs for at least 2000 years.
This complex relationship betwen biotic and abiotic factors could explain both the lack of a bamboo zone on Kilimanjaro and the potential to explain patterns of both diversity and endemism are found in the mountains. Kilimanjaro forests can is an exceptional example of the significant influence of both animals and humans on the landscape.
History of Mount Kilimanjaro
Kilimanjaro is between twenty-six regions found in Tanzania, it contains many features but the most important feature is Mount Kilimanjaro. Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa, it is also one of the largest volcanoes on Earth, covering approximately 388 500 hectares. This mountain has three main peaks, Mawenzi, and Shira Kibo.
Kibo peak is best conserved in the crater of the mountain, southern lips slightly higher than the edges, and the highest point on the southern lip is known as Uhuru Peak high of about 5895m. This peak is only one of the three peaks are permanently covered by snow.
Mawenzi is the second highest peak, Kilimanjaro. Located after Kibo, Mawenzi looks less like the crater of a single piece of jagged, craggy rocks rising from the Saddle. This is simply because the west side also happens to be the highest, and all things hiding behind it. This peak is the horseshoe shape, angled too steep to hold the glaciers, and also there is no permanent snow compared to Kibo. The highest point is called Hans Meyer peak Mawenzi peak is about 5149m and the risk is so devastated by the gutters and broken, there are other peaks, including peak Purtschller in 5120m, and 4958m peaks in the South but there are also two in the depths of the Great Barranco and Lesser Barranco network scar face the north east.
The oldest and smallest at the top of Kilimanjaro is called Shira Ridge, located on the west side of the mountain. It is about 3962m high peak called Johnsell point. This ridge, in fact, only the western and southern edges of the crater formed by volcanic eruptions of the original.
Kilimanjaro is located on the northern border of Tanzania, overlooking Kenya, and only 200 miles south of the Equator. This area is not very mountainous; the nearest mountain to Kilimanjaro is Mount Meru, more than 60km away to the south-west.
We know that humans have lived in or around the mountain since at least 1000BC. We also know that, during the last 500 years, this mountain has at different times acted as a navigational aid for traders traveling between the interior and the coast, a magnet for explorers Victoria, a political pawn to be traded between the European great powers carved up East Africa, a front line of the same super strength, and powerful symbol of independence for those who want to liberate themselves from colonial interlopers.
The first residents living in the Kilimanjaro participate in fashioning a stone bowl, but if not they will spend time in hunting and gathering local flora and fauna. Besides the Kilimanjaro region is suitable for both fresh water and wood, stone, mud, vies for the building.
Tanzania Kilimanjaro name comes from the local dialect, and most of the language used by people who live in places (Chagga people), said no word from the vocabulary Kilimanjaro Chagga, but if we divide into two parts we get the word ‘Kilima’ derived from Chagga.
Kilimanjaro National Park without waste
Located 340 km south of the equator, Mount Kilimanjaro is one of the three mountains open to the eternal snow on the equator, in addition to the top of Cayambe in Ecuador and Jaya in Indonesia. As the main object in Tanzania and the symbol of the East African countries, in 1973 made the Kilimanjaro National Park, and in 1987, Kilimanjaro National Park (KINAPA) is recognized as a World Natural Heritage by the United Nations. Currently, the Kilimanjaro region with Kibo Peak (5895 m above sea level) as the highest roof of the African continent, visited by more than 35,000 visitors each year.
The ease of access, accommodation, security, and professional guide services, enabling more people to enjoy the natural beauty of this increasingly rare. Kilimanjaro as a world natural heritage and improve itself in four years tourist arrivals increased by over threefold.Amazing.
Observing nature in the management of Kili, in a mission trip “Kilimanjaro for Lupus” This continues to create awe and envy. Tanzania, a developing country with over 30 percent of the population below the poverty line, capable of highly disciplined. Marangu gate is one of seven routes ascent to the top of Kilimanjaro at an altitude of 1,800 m. Managers of office buildings containing three officers met the prospective climbers lined up neatly.
In front of her small shop, containing a complete ascent to the needs of souvenir merchandise. Seating bathroom facilities and a picnic area neat and clean, climbing four boards, ban, appeals and regulatory stumbled climbing nicely on a wooden board with carved posts are easy to read.
The whole point of building identified by the board clear. No visible trash, but we did not find any trash scattered. Reliable guides to help us register and manage logistics with 26 porters, cooks, and assistant guide, mostly Chagga tribe, the largest tribes in the Kilimanjaro region.
The pure natural atmosphere along the 70 mile trip up and down we feel so deeply. Flora and fauna we encountered seemed calm is disturbed. Picnic area in the form of a wooden bench tables, cots, clean and well maintained toilets in every 5-7 km trip, three cottages with a capacity of 70 people climbing on Mandara, Horombo and 148 people in 58 people in Kibo is ready to welcome.
Each cottage triangular structure with bunk beds for 4-10 climbers is a wooden building with sleeping mats and pillows. The hut was enough to make us more comfortable than sleeping in a tent. In addition, there are toilets with abundant water, dining hall, kitchen and special guides and porters lodge, plus a solar panel that is ready to light up every room every night.
Good facilities without the discipline of users, whatever that means. In KINAPA the guides holds the primary key in the management of national parks. By guiding the categorization system versus return, they demanded continue to improve services, natural sciences, technical climbing and rescue, as well as communication skills and language.
Being a guide is a dream most people Chagga tribe who live around the foot of Kilimanjaro. It took more than 5 years to become head of the guide, with the highest return. With 2-3 years experience to be reporters to forge its physical, 2 years of education on the job training as an assistant guide, and finally test the KINAPA for certification guide.
Kilimanjaro as one of “The Big Seven” the highest mountain on every continent in the world encourages the Government of Tanzania to clean themselves. Tanzania’s readiness to welcome the tourists of this nature must also be replicated by governments and observer of nature in Indonesia, where Mount Carstensz Pyramid, Papua Indonesia Jayawijaya region, is also one of “The Big Seven”.