Dead Sea

The Dead Sea is a lake that stretches in the region between Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan area. At 417.5 m below sea level, the lowest point on the surface of the die bumi.Laut lies on the border between Jordan and the western part of Palestine, the Dead Sea has the lowest point on earth at 1,300 ft (400m) below sea level.

Geologically dead sea formed three million years ago when small cracks occur in the Jordan valley where the entry and collected sea water, dry climate and high evaporation increases the concentration of minerals in the water. Salt, lime and gypsum are present in all the cracks and form lakes with highest salt content.

The lake is called the dead sea because there is no life form can survive in salt water. Dead Sea has the highest salt content of the whole ocean in the world. The salt content of about 32% compared to an average salinity of 3% on the Mediterranean Sea or the Mediterranean. Since the first material found in the Dead Sea are known to have effects to beautify the skin. By applying this mud to the body, minerals contained in it is proven to improve skin, blood circulation and can membantuk health. It has long been known by King Solomon, Cleopatra and Herod the Great, so they went to the Dead Sea to obtain these effects.

The origins of the Dead Sea
The origin of the Dead Sea is mentioned in scripture Muslims and Christians. Mentioned that God commanded the Prophet Lut to warn his people that legalizing homosexual behavior. Because people ignore the call of Prophet Lut, the Lord instructed the Prophet Lut to get away from the city of Sodom and Gomorrah. Wrath of God comes through a volcanic earthquake which followed the eruption of lava, the cities being torn down, and then turned upside down into the Dead Sea.

Explain the results of contemporary scientific research, disaster can happen because Siddim Valley area, where there is the city of Sodom and Gomorrah, is the meeting point of the fault or two plates of the earth’s crust that moves in the opposite direction. The fracture started from the edge of Mount Taurus, extending to the south coast of the Dead Sea and the Arabian Desert to continue through the Gulf of Aqaba and continues across the Red Sea, to end up in Africa. Usually, when two plates of the earth’s crust is shifting in the fault it will cause a massive earthquake followed by tsunami that swept the coastal areas. Also commonly followed by the eruption of lava / hot lava from the earth.

Why water is very salty Dead Sea?
Supply of water entering the Dead Sea and Jordan River just a few of the surrounding mountains. Because the Dead Sea was a low position so that water can not be streamed accepted everywhere. The only way out is through the evaporation of water into the air only. That is why the water becomes very salty Dead Sea because the water is undergoing a process of evaporation leaves mineral substances.

The uniqueness of the Dead Sea
You can not swim, but do not want to sink when plunging into the water? That’s not the problem impossible. In the Dead Sea, every person who plunge themselves will not sink even in the deep. This can happen because the Dead Sea has a very high salinity levels. But many people mistakenly call the Dead Sea is the most salty waters in the world. Actually there are other waters that higher salinity levels (40%) that is Lake Assal in Djibuoti, Africa.

Dead Sea mud that has merit as a skin. In addition, there are some other useful mineral substances contained in the Dead Sea are:

• Sodium can increase the permeability of which is suitable for dry skin.
• Magnesium concentrations 15 times higher than the other sea. Magnesium helps the        healing of skin tissue and provides skin surface with anti-allergy and essential for cell metabolism.
• Potassium can enhance the oxidation and regulates the electrical process of the muscles and nervous system and helps regulate the moisture in the skin.
• Bromide – the concentration of bromide is 50 times higher than ordinary salt. This causes a very relaxing effect and helps repair skin cells naturally.
• Bitumen is found in small amounts and can act as an anti-inflammatory.
• Iodine plays an important role in the formation of the hormone thyroxine, and also important for energy and cell metabolism.
• Calcium is important as a defense of the cell membranes and cleansing the pores, which also needed to repair tissue under the skin.
• Zinc plays a role in the regulation of the enzyme.
• Dead Sea Mud helps dry the skin by replacing lost electrolytes, can treat several dermatological problems such as eczema, acne, arthritis, joint pain, and nerve and circulatory problems. Dead Sea salt can also act as a disinfectant that can remove harmful substances from the skin.

Shallow and threatened not “die” again
Today, the waters of the Dead Sea began to shrink. Since 1960 the water has shrunk more than 10 meters, so it is feared the Dead Sea continues to silting. Susutnya Dead Sea water is attributed to the evaporation, as well as a result of water related projects undertaken by the government of Israel and Jordan.

If the waters continue to recede, then 2017 was planned in the Dead Sea will be connected to the Red Sea by a dam that can adjust the volume of water. If that happens, then the salinity of the Dead Sea will decline and become normal with normal marine salinity. If so the Dead Sea may not be “dead” because the fish and other organisms can live in it.

Although the name of the dark, the Dead Sea is in fact not at all deadly to humans, but it is for other organisms such as plants and fish, then the incomplete population lives. This is due to the level of salt in water salinity of about 30%, 9 times saltier then the Mediterranean. Salt levels are also responsible for the ability to float along the Dead Sea waters, the density increases in water allows visitors to float easily along the surface. Situated between Israel and Jordan bank, this natural spa is 420 m below sea level making it the lowest place of the earth’s surface. Visitors flock to the Dead Sea oasis to kick back, relax, and enjoy the healing mineral mud bath in the sun.

Dead Sea is one of the wonders of the world are we protect and. Don’t let the Dead Sea is shrinking or not to die again.





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Matterhorn Mountain

As a mountainous country, more than half of Switzerland at an altitude of 1,200 meters. Ascona is the lowest region with an altitude of only 196 meters, while the highest point in Switzerland is a 4634 meter peak Dufour. About 100 peaks in the Swiss Alps has a height of more than 4,000 meters and more than 1,800 glacier above the snow line altitude of 2,500 meters. This then causes the later famous Swiss mountain tourism. About 60 percent of the Swiss tourist activities contained in the Alps Mountain.

Matterhorn is a mountain in the Swiss mountain 4.478 m high and has a pyramid shape whose four sides facing the four directions of the compass. Respectively the North and East facing East Valley and south-facing Swiss.Bagian Gornegrat in Breuil-Cervinia and the Dent d’Herens facing west, north and south and meet at the summit.

Matterhorn / Cervino is perhaps the best known mountain in the Alps in Europe. On the border between Switzerland and Italy, towers above the village of Zermatt in Switzerland and the village of Breuil-Cervinia, Italy, in Tournanche Val. This mountain has four faces, facing the four cardinal directions, respectively, to the north and south faces meeting to form a short summit ridge east-west. The faces are steep, and only a fraction of the snow and ice attached to it; avalanche of snow dropped on a regular basis and accumulate on the glacier at the base of each face.

Currently Matterhorn can be enjoyed by using the rail that has been built. some areas that have facilities that include Unterrothron and Klein Matterhorn (3.883 m). The Hornli Hut (3.260 m), starting from the normal route, the easiest access of frequently used Schwarzsee and climbers.

When standing at the top of the Matterhorn we’ll get to watch at least 38 mountain peaks of about 200 peaks in the Alps in the border regions of five countries, Switzerland, Austria, France, Germany and Italy. Because of the many advantages that make the Matterhorn become the most popular mountain in Switzerland.

Matterhorn is the peak of the last Alpine ditaklukankan and the first ascent marks the end of time Golden alpinism. ie in 1865 by an expedition led by Edward Whymper and ended tragically when the majority of its members fell. Among the three large surfaces north of the Alps. Matterhorn is one of the deadliest peaks in the Alps: from 1865 – when it was first climbed – up to 1995, 500 alpinists died on it.

Matterhorn become iconic emblem of the Swiss Alps and the Alps in general. Since the late nineteenth century, when the railway was built, attracting more visitors and climbers. Every summer many skilled mountaineers attempting to climb the Matterhorn via the north-east ridge Hörnli, the most frequented route to the summit.The mountain is named from the German words Matte, meaning meadow, and Horn, which means peak.

Matterhorn is an isolated mountain. Because of its position in the main Alpine watershed and a great height, the Matterhorn face of rapid climate change. Besides the steep mountain face and the remote location makes it susceptible to the formation of banner clouds with air flowing around and creates a vortex, to air condensation.

Matterhorn has two distinct peaks, both located on a rocky ridge 100 feet in length: the Swiss summit (4,477.5 m) to the east and the top of Italy (4,476.4 m) to the west. Their name comes from the first ascents not for geographic reasons, because both are located on the border. In August 1792, Geneva and geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure explorers made the first measurements of high Matterhorn, using a chain of 50-foot-long glacier spread over Theodul and a sextant.A recent survey (1999) using the Global Positioning System technology has been made, so that the height of the Matterhorn to be measured to within one centimeter accuracy, and the changes to be tracked. The result is 4,477.54 meters.

Matterhorn has a pyramidal shape with four faces facing the four cardinal directions: north and east faces, respectively, and the valley Zmutt Gornergrat ridge in Switzerland, faces south (just south of the Swiss-Italian border) resort town of Breuil-Cervinia, and the face looks westward Dent d’Hérens mountain that straddles the border.

North-facing valley The Zmutt, the Matterhorn is steep, and only a small patch of snow and ice attached; usual pile avalanches on the glacier at the base of each face, the largest glacier in western Zmutt. Hörnli back from the northeast (central ridge in the view from Zermatt) is the normal ascent route.

Famous faces are the east and north, seen from Zermatt. East face is 1,000 meters high, because it is “a slope, with the ruins of a high-risk, making the dangerous ascent. The north face is 1,200 meters high and is one of the most dangerous north face in the Alps, especially to the risk of debris and storm. South face is 1,350 meters high and offers a variety of routes. Faces west, the highest in the 1,400 meters, has the fewest climbing routes.

Railways and cable-car facilities have been constructed to reach the peaks in the region easier. Gornergrat railway, reached an altitude of 3,100 meters, inaugurated in 1898. Areas served by cable car is Unterrothorn and Klein Matterhorn (Little Matterhorn) (3883 m, the highest in the European transport system). Hörnli Hut (3260 m), which is the beginning of the normal route via the ridge Hörnli, easily accessible from Schwarzsee (2,600 m) and is also frequented by climbers. Both resorts of Zermatt and Cervinia as a function of ski resorts throughout the year and are linked by the skilifts Theodul Pass. A cable car runs from the Klein Matterhorn Testa Grigia currently planned for 2014. Will eventually provide a link between the Swiss and Italian side of Matterhorn

Museum Matterhorn (Zermatt) associated with the general history of alpinism and tourism areas. In the museum, which is in the form of a mountain village, where visitors can see the model on the first ascent of the Matterhorn and the tragic and see things the protagonist’s own.

Climbing route
Today, all the grooves and the face of the Matterhorn was climbed in all seasons, and mountain guides take a large number of people in northeastern Hörnli route each summer. By modern standards, the climb is quite difficult but not hard for skilled mountaineers. There are fixed ropes on parts of the route to help. However, several climbers die each year due to a number of factors including increased scale and its inherent dangers, experience, falling rocks, and crowded routes.

This mountain is one of the mountain is often climbed by far and tiring pendaki.Perjalanan not make the climbers are tired because when it comes to its tired, we can see the beautiful view and snow.


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Milford Sound in New Zealand

Milford Sound (Piopiotahi in Māori) is a fjord in the south west of New Zealand, in Fiordland National Park and World Heritage site of Te Wahipounamu. as a tourist destination and as the world’s most famous tourist destinations in New Zealand.


Milford Sound along the 15 miles inland from the Tasman Sea and is surrounded by sheer rock as high as 1,200 meters or more, among the top there is a stone that resembles an elephant’s head 1517 meters and 1302 meters in the form of a lion crouching lion. Lush rain forests are among the cliffs, while seals, penguins, and dolphins and whales are often seen.

Seals are large mammals of the order carnivore that lived in the area cool. At first, seals belong to the suborder Pinnipedia, but now it has shifted the suborder category to category superfamilia. Currently, the seals put in a joint family Odobenidae Caniformia suborder (marine bear / walrus), Otariidae (sea lions), and Phocidae. Recent molecular analyzes have shown that the seal bears the closest relatives. Another hypothesis says that seals are true seals polifiletik the ancestral form of animals such as otters while the other seal species derived from a common ancestor of animals such as bears, but recent molecular studies that have been mentioned previously to ensure that all types of seals is monophyletic, which is derived from a common ancestor.

Penguin or penguin is an aquatic animal species of birds that can not fly and generally live in the southern hemisphere. Generally penguins eat krill (a type of shrimp), fish, squid and other aquatic animals are caught while swimming in the sea with its beak. Penguins can drink sea water because the body supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the sea of blood flow. Salt is then expelled in liquid form through the respiratory tract penguin.

whale or Lodan (special toothed and not small) is a group of mammals that live in the ocean. The term “whale” is given to members of the large cetaceans. The Pope is not classified in the family fish. The Pope has the following characteristics:
• breathe using lungs
• have a hair (a bit, mostly on adult whale)
• warm-blooded
• have a mammary gland
• have a heart with four chambers


With the average rainfall is 6813 mm in 182 days a year, rather high, the highest on the west Coast, Milford Sound is known as the wettest inhabited place in New Zealand and one of the most lucrative in the world. Rainfall may reach 250 mm during the period of 24 hours. rainfall will make dozens of temporary waterfalls, cascading down cliffs reaching a thousand meters. Small water falls from a height such that it can never reach the bottom.
Accumulated rainwater can at times cause portions of rain forest trees have avalanches. The rain forest regrowth after these avalanches can be seen at several locations.


The Stirling Falls are named after the captain of HMS Cleo.
Milford Sound was initially overlooked by European explorers, because when they get into this area can hardly attribute out. Sailing ship captains such as James Cook, who pass through Milford Sound, too afraid to wander too close to the steep mountain slopes, scared by the wind conditions that give rise to a roaring sound

Fjords is a playground for the local Maori who have knowledge of local seafood including tidal patterns and eating fish from generation to generation before the arrival of Europeans. fjord that remain undiscovered by europoeans up with the name of the sealer Captain John Grono found (1812) and named Milford Haven and considered as the homeland of Wales. later renamed into Milford Haven Milford Sound.

Fjords of land, an area that is often explored by New Zealand until the 20th century, led to the natural beauty of Milford Sound is very interesting and well-known nationally and internationally, and are associated with the discovery of MacKinnon Pass in 1888, this area became part of the new Milford Track , this is an initial path of tourism. In the same year, trowongan between the Hollyford River and the River Cleddau found, where the tunnel was to be developed about sixty years later to provide the access road.
In the 2006 census, only 120 people lived in Milford Sound, most of them work in tourism or conservation.


See the cliffs and waterfalls after dry season, a two-storey tourist boating Mitre Peak, towering over Milford Sound.
The beauty of this landscape draws thousands of visitors every day, with millions of visitors per year. make the most frequently visited New Zealand, and also the most popular, even with its remote location and the long journey from the nearest population centers. Virtually all travelers choose one of the boat tours which usually last between 1-2 hours. . There is also the option of extended overnight cruises on Milford Sound.

Tramping, canoeing and some other water sports also allows to do. A small number of companies also provides overnight boat trips. there is only limited accommodation and only a very small percentage of tourists stay more than a day.

An underwater tourist observatory found in one of the bays give the appearance of black coral, usually only found in deeper waters. Dark surface layer of fresh water, stained by tannins from the surrounding forest, allows the corals to grow close to the surface here.

During the visit of rainy days and stormy winds can admire the game with a lot of waterfalls in Milford Sound. When looking at the cliffs buffeted by strong winds, leading to the waterfall looked up, it’s amazing.


Milford Sound is 295 km from Queenstown and 279 km from Invercargill (about four-hour trip), with most of the tour buses depart from Queenstown.
Some tourists also come from other tourist centers, Te Anau, 121 km. There are also sightseeing flight conducted by light aircraft and helicopters from the airport travel and Milford Sound.
Travel to Milford Sound itself passes mountain views, before entering the 1.2 km Homer Tunnel, winding mountain road, and when rain falls, it is prone to avalanches and frequent closures during the winter half-year.

Text above is all the information about Milford Sound.Semoga that I wrote can be beneficial and be an alternative for your vacation.Thanks for your attention.Thank you…




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Bu Tinah Island in United Arab Emirates

Western offshore Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, lies a wealth of unique natural, wild and undisturbed by human activity: The island is located in Bu Tinah.Pulau marine reserve areas Marawah was built by UNESCO, the UN agency for cultural and social affairs. The island is entered as a candidate for one of the seven wonders of the world for natural categories baru.Laut that surround the island area of two square kilometers is very clear. I was so crystal clear, was essentially invisible. Fly fish a lot of looks, a dolphin suddenly came up, we can even feed the birds that are migrating Flamingo.

Bu Tinah ecosystem is growing rapidly form a unique living laboratory with major significance for climate change research. A haven of undisturbed, Bu Tinah can teach humans a lot about environmental protection and survival. This unique natural habitat has shallow waters, seagrass beds and mangrove height, located in the middle of a vast landscape of coral reefs. Residence the beautiful marine life and endangered species. Sea birds, including flamingo and osprey, various species of dolphins and hawksbill turtle species live in Bu Tinah. Waters of this island is home to the dugong population in the world, large marine mammals are threatened with extinction worldwide. The island of Bu Tinah Island, rich in biodiversity, lies in Marawah Sea Biosphere Reserve – the largest marine sanctuary in the region. Protection and survival must be ensured.

Fauna in Bu Tinah:
Bu Tinah is not a name, but the name of an island in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. On this island lived a variety of rare and beautiful animals are protected, including:

1.Flying Fish
flying fish is a fish families comprising about 50 species grouped in 7 to 9 genera. Flying fish are found in all major oceans, particularly in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The main characteristic of the most prominent feature is a great chest fin, allowing these fish glide briefly flying through the air, above the water, to escape from predators. Launch as far as they are usually about 50 feet, but they could use a boost on the edge of the waves can reach up to a distance of at least 400m.

The dolphins are highly intelligent marine mammals, other than the natural systems that complement the body is very complex. So much technology that is inspired by dolphins. One example is the skin of dolphins that could minimize friction with the water, so the dolphins can swim with a little water resistance. It is used by swimmers to design swimsuits that resemble the skin of dolphins.

3.Eagle  Osprey
Eagle is a warm-blooded animals, have wings and body covered with feathers midrib. For birds, eagles breed in a way that has a hard shell eggs in the nest is made. She looked after him until able to fly.


Dugong is a kind of marine animal that is one rather than four species of Sirenia or sea cow which still survive in addition to manatees, mermaids are not included in the fish. He is the only animal who represents the family Dugongidae. He is also the only sirenian can be found in waters at least in 37 countries in the Indo-Pacific region, although most of the manatees live in the waters of northern Australia. Mermaid or dugong is the only marine mammal herbivores or maun (leaf eaters), and all species of sea cows live in fresh water with a specific water temperature.


Flamingo is a bird species that live in groups legged ladder. They are derived from the genus Phoenicopterus and family of Phoenicopteridae. This bird is found in western and eastern hemisphere, but more numerous in the eastern hemisphere. There are four species of flamingos in the U.S. and 2 in the Old World flamingo species.

5.Green turtles

Green turtle is one species of sea turtles are common and more numerous compared to some other turtles. Kind of like the leatherback turtle in the report has been greatly reduced in number and including one type that is almost lost in the waters, only a few places that still occasionally be a place of spawning for this species of sea turtles. Leatherback sea turtles are protected and included in the CITES (Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species) Appendix 1. Although more numerous in the appeal of another turtle, green turtle population is reduced each year by the arrest and membunuhan either intentionally or unintentionally caught by nets.

Sea turtles, generally bermigasi a considerable distance with a time not too long. We may still remember one scene in the movie Nemo, while Nemo met with the male green sea turtles migrating hordes. Not exactly the same as the migration patterns of sea turtles is generally sufficient, but clearly suggests that sea turtles migrate as a series of life cycle. Once in the report that reached the green turtle migration distance of 3,000 km in 58-73 days. Several other studies have revealed that the sea turtles hatch on the water, found in the surrounding waters and Hawaii.

Sea turtles, especially green sea turtles are plant-eating animals (herbivores), but occasionally may swallow some small animal. These animals are often in the report beruaya around seagrass beds (seagrass) to find food, and sometimes takes macroalga found around desert algae. In the seagrass beds of these animals is more like some kind of small and soft like seagrasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule uninervis, Halophila ovalis, and H. ovata). In the field of algae, animal love (Sargassum illiafolium and Chaclomorpha Aérea). Never been reported also that the green turtles takes some Invertebrate which are generally attached to seagrass leaves and algae.

Flora  in Bu Tinah:
In addition to the Maldives and Glapagos islands, small islands in the UAE is also rich in marine species are diverse. There are at least 16 species of coral in the waters of Bu Tinah who can live in temperatures and salinity levels that can kill in other parts of the world. Shallow waters full of sea grass is also home to approximately 600 endangered dugong, hawksbill also been very rare.

Bu Tinah Island is a gathering place for animals and plants.That is why we must maintain and conserve.Next all of people in Arab should be introduced to the world.Hopefully the above can be useful and add to the knowledge of the reader.Thank you….







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Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania

Africa is famous for the wild nature has a mount,mountain kilimanjaro.Gunung it has the most dashing across the continent stands on the high sea level and 5859 m.

Mount Kilimanjaro is an active stratavolcano located in Tanzania near the border with Kenya. Mount Kilimanjaro actually covers three volcanic cones, Shira, Kibo and Mawenzi. Summit Uhuru Peak on Kibo cone standing 19,340 feet. Interestingly, while only four of the continent and also the highest point down on the list of world’s highest peak, Kilimanjaro represents the largest increase in free-standing mountain in the world – 15, 100 meters from base to summit.

Mount Kilimanjaro is known ecology is very diverse with six different ecological zones. Nature lowest cultivated land where people have settled and the vegetation growing because the soil is rich. Between 6000 and 9200 feet, the terrain turned into a lush rain forest, which receives more than six feet of rain a year. Like the rain forests in general, Kilimanjaro rainforest is rich in both plant and animal life, including monkeys, leopards and antelopes. 9200-11000 feet of health zones are dominated by heather, grass and flowers there. Rose to around 11000-13200 feet, ecology transfer to Moorland, where a variety of small, thick as senecios plants and lobelias grow and the birds and wildlife to inhabit slightly. On top of Moorland and to 16 500 feet is known alpine desert blinding glare, scarce water and a significant temperature swings often ranging from below freezing at night to over 100 degrees F during the day. Only certain plants and algae can survive there and the animals pass through but do not make a home. Last zone is the peak, which is characterized by a glacier and a thin atmosphere. Some animal or plant life in the top reaches Kilimanjaro.

As one of the Seven Summits (the highest peak on each continent), Mount Kilimanjaro has long been a symbolic climb for mountaineers and trekkers. Geography does not have a top technical features make it easy to climb as many of the seven peaks of Mount Everest and other like Denali. The summit can be reached with a package of simple tools like sticks. The thin air can still inhibit several visits, however, they are in decent condition and cooling should be relatively easy to find the peak. A dozen top route service and allow for jaw-dropping, varied scenery. Mawenzi, Kibo even lower, offering a more difficult climb requiring climbing gear and techniques.

Endemic Plants of Kilimanjaro

Forests and pastures on the slopes of Kilimanjaro have unique vegetation such as cabbage save water. It is found in the Moorland zone. There are other plants such as purple haze marijuana and orange Cush adapted to living in alpine conditions.

Kilimanjaro has a wide variety of forest types graduated range of 3,000 m. This area contains more than 1200 species of vascular plants. Montane Ocotea forests are found in moist southern slopes, whereas Cassipourea and Juniperus forests grow in the drier northern slopes.

Subalpine Erica forests at 4100 m is the highest elevation cloud forests in East Africa. Although the high biodiversity, low levels of endemism. This is possible as a result of serious habitat depletion prior to completing the survey work or the young age of the Mount.

Former forest patches in the deepest valleys of the cultivated lower areas suggest that diverse flora inhabited Mt Kilimanjaro forest in the past. This includes species that are limited otherwise only found in Eastern Arc mountains.

Endemism is low on the mountain may be a result of damage to lowland forests as opposed to the relatively young age of the mountain.

Another unique characteristic of the forests on Mount Kilimanjaro is the lack of a belt of bamboo, which occurs in all the other mountains in East Africa compared with the same high rainfall. This may be related to the act of large herbivores such as elephants and buffalo. Standing Sinarundinaria often favored by elephants and buffaloes and herbivores are found on the northern slopes of Kilimanjaro. In the northern slopes were too dry for a large bamboo zone to develop. The animals were given greater access to the wet southern slope forests with steep topography and human existence. The local tribes have been cultivated on the slopes below and legs for at least 2000 years.

This complex relationship betwen biotic and abiotic factors could explain both the lack of a bamboo zone on Kilimanjaro and the potential to explain patterns of both diversity and endemism are found in the mountains. Kilimanjaro forests can is an exceptional example of the significant influence of both animals and humans on the landscape.

History of Mount Kilimanjaro

Kilimanjaro is between twenty-six regions found in Tanzania, it contains many features but the most important feature is Mount Kilimanjaro. Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa, it is also one of the largest volcanoes on Earth, covering approximately 388 500 hectares. This mountain has three main peaks, Mawenzi, and Shira Kibo.

Kibo peak is best conserved in the crater of the mountain, southern lips slightly higher than the edges, and the highest point on the southern lip is known as Uhuru Peak high of about 5895m. This peak is only one of the three peaks are permanently covered by snow.

Mawenzi is the second highest peak, Kilimanjaro. Located after Kibo, Mawenzi looks less like the crater of a single piece of jagged, craggy rocks rising from the Saddle. This is simply because the west side also happens to be the highest, and all things hiding behind it. This peak is the horseshoe shape, angled too steep to hold the glaciers, and also there is no permanent snow compared to Kibo. The highest point is called Hans Meyer peak Mawenzi peak is about 5149m and the risk is so devastated by the gutters and broken, there are other peaks, including peak Purtschller in 5120m, and 4958m peaks in the South but there are also two in the depths of the Great Barranco and Lesser Barranco network scar face the north east.

The oldest and smallest at the top of Kilimanjaro is called Shira Ridge, located on the west side of the mountain. It is about 3962m high peak called Johnsell point. This ridge, in fact, only the western and southern edges of the crater formed by volcanic eruptions of the original.

Kilimanjaro is located on the northern border of Tanzania, overlooking Kenya, and only 200 miles south of the Equator. This area is not very mountainous; the nearest mountain to Kilimanjaro is Mount Meru, more than 60km away to the south-west.

We know that humans have lived in or around the mountain since at least 1000BC. We also know that, during the last 500 years, this mountain has at different times acted as a navigational aid for traders traveling between the interior and the coast, a magnet for explorers Victoria, a political pawn to be traded between the European great powers carved up East Africa, a front line of the same super strength, and powerful symbol of independence for those who want to liberate themselves from colonial interlopers.

The first residents living in the Kilimanjaro participate in fashioning a stone bowl, but if not they will spend time in hunting and gathering local flora and fauna. Besides the Kilimanjaro region is suitable for both fresh water and wood, stone, mud, vies for the building.

Tanzania Kilimanjaro name comes from the local dialect, and most of the language used by people who live in places (Chagga people), said no word from the vocabulary Kilimanjaro Chagga, but if we divide into two parts we get the word ‘Kilima’ derived from Chagga.

Kilimanjaro National Park without waste

Located 340 km south of the equator, Mount Kilimanjaro is one of the three mountains open to the eternal snow on the equator, in addition to the top of Cayambe in Ecuador and Jaya in Indonesia. As the main object in Tanzania and the symbol of the East African countries, in 1973 made the Kilimanjaro National Park, and in 1987, Kilimanjaro National Park (KINAPA) is recognized as a World Natural Heritage by the United Nations. Currently, the Kilimanjaro region with Kibo Peak (5895 m above sea level) as the highest roof of the African continent, visited by more than 35,000 visitors each year.

The ease of access, accommodation, security, and professional guide services, enabling more people to enjoy the natural beauty of this increasingly rare. Kilimanjaro as a world natural heritage and improve itself in four years tourist arrivals increased by over threefold.Amazing.

Observing nature in the management of Kili, in a mission trip “Kilimanjaro for Lupus” This continues to create awe and envy. Tanzania, a developing country with over 30 percent of the population below the poverty line, capable of highly disciplined. Marangu gate is one of seven routes ascent to the top of Kilimanjaro at an altitude of 1,800 m. Managers of office buildings containing three officers met the prospective climbers lined up neatly.

In front of her small shop, containing a complete ascent to the needs of souvenir merchandise. Seating bathroom facilities and a picnic area neat and clean, climbing four boards, ban, appeals and regulatory stumbled climbing nicely on a wooden board with carved posts are easy to read.

The whole point of building identified by the board clear. No visible trash, but we did not find any trash scattered. Reliable guides to help us register and manage logistics with 26 porters, cooks, and assistant guide, mostly Chagga tribe, the largest tribes in the Kilimanjaro region.

The pure natural atmosphere along the 70 mile trip up and down we feel so deeply. Flora and fauna we encountered seemed calm is disturbed. Picnic area in the form of a wooden bench tables, cots, clean and well maintained toilets in every 5-7 km trip, three cottages with a capacity of 70 people climbing on Mandara, Horombo and 148 people in 58 people in Kibo is ready to welcome.


Each cottage triangular structure with bunk beds for 4-10 climbers is a wooden building with sleeping mats and pillows. The hut was enough to make us more comfortable than sleeping in a tent. In addition, there are toilets with abundant water, dining hall, kitchen and special guides and porters lodge, plus a solar panel that is ready to light up every room every night.

Good facilities without the discipline of users, whatever that means. In KINAPA the guides holds the primary key in the management of national parks. By guiding the categorization system versus return, they demanded continue to improve services, natural sciences, technical climbing and rescue, as well as communication skills and language.

Penalty system, a suspension up to revocation of license, apply KINAPA management to ensure no violations occur, such as the use of fuels that are not recommended, disturbing flora and fauna, the route outside the terms of use, carelessness, guides, and more stringent regulations that could stop the source of the guides .

Being a guide is a dream most people Chagga tribe who live around the foot of Kilimanjaro. It took more than 5 years to become head of the guide, with the highest return. With 2-3 years experience to be reporters to forge its physical, 2 years of education on the job training as an assistant guide, and finally test the KINAPA for certification guide.

Kilimanjaro as one of “The Big Seven” the highest mountain on every continent in the world encourages the Government of Tanzania to clean themselves. Tanzania’s readiness to welcome the tourists of this nature must also be replicated by governments and observer of nature in Indonesia, where Mount Carstensz Pyramid, Papua Indonesia Jayawijaya region, is also one of “The Big Seven”.

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Puerto Princesa Underground River

Puerto Princesa Underground River is located about 50 kilometers from downtown Puerto Princessa, Palawan, Puerto Princesa Filipina.Sungai Mountains located in Saint Paul on the north coast of Palawan island. The river is bordered by the Gulf of Saint Paul to the north and east of the river Babuyan. Puerto Princessa City Government has set up this river since 1992. And known as the Underground River Saint Paul.

Puerto Princesa River has a limestone karst mountain landscape with an underground river to navigate along the 8.2 kilometer. The cave contains formations of stalactites and stalagmites, and several large rooms. A distinguishing feature of this river is the wind blowing in the cave itself into the South China Sea.

Imagine yourself surrounded by more than 22,000 acres of natural beauty. You are in the middle of a dramatic landscape with jagged cliffs and limestone mountains jutting out from a sea of lush green tropical vegetation. If you are a bird watchers, the air was filled with flapping wings and voice calls of exotic parrots, hornbills, birds, herons and leaves. If you are a nature lover, you catch the eye movements of the lizard clumsily stumble through the rustling leaves and squirrels jumping from tree limb bent, while the monkey’s eyes flashing wildly curious peer back at you from behind the dark foliage. This place is wild geography and exotic wildlife have a dream. This is the Puerto Princesa Underground River National Park, Philippines.

Located about 50 km north of Puerto Princesa in Palawan island, which in turn is only an hour long flight from Manila, this UNESCO World Heritage Natural nest sites of biodiversity. Moreover, this is one of 28 finalists for the “New Seven Wonders of Nature” competition.

With such prominent awards, this park is worth exploring adventure hotspot. Historically speaking, the region has sparked interest for centuries, but not until March 26, 1971 Park was formally established as St Paul’s Underground River. In 1992, the limit is extended and the area was re-branded with a name now: Puerto Princesa Underground River National Park. In addition to a facelift, the management responsibilities have been transferred to the Government of Puerto Princesa City, which has since managed to build many-core areas of biology, reserves and protected areas balanced with a warm stream of healthy eco-tourism.

How do I visit Puerto Princesa:

Mostly, about 90 percent of visitors chose to get a room in the main city of Puerto Princesa, and then take the price of packaged and pretty comfortable day trip from the city center. Or, you yourself can make your way north of the Puerto-Roxas road to the town of Sabang, which is located on the outskirts of the Park. Jeepneys and buses ply the route at the rate of Php 200-300 for a three-hour trip.

Once in Sabang, there is a wide choice of accommodation can be found. Also, there are some entry fee to be considered. You will need to secure permission at the Tourist Information and Assistance Center at the dock Sabang for around Php 200. You can arrange boat transportation to the river for Php 700 up trip.The round should take no more than 15 minutes. After a five minute walk to the entrance, you will be given a boat and driver for the hour long journey to the cave

Great time to visit Puerto Princesa:

So far, the best time of year to visit Puerto Princesa Underground River National Park is during the dry season, which typically lasts from November to April. The sky is bright and clear and pleasant temperatures.

Flora and Fauna in Puerto Princesa Underground River :

Monkeys, squirrels and lizards are living comfortably on the beach tersebut.They find their niche on the beach near the cave.

The text above is information about Puerto Princesa Undergroaund River.I hope what I write cab be usefull.I want to write all about Sewen Wonders of Nature.So..wait the next my blog .Thank you..


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Table Mountain

Table Mountain is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa. This is a significant attraction, with many visitors using the cableway or hiking to the summit. The mountain is part of the Table Mountain National Park.
Table Mountain seen from the main features of a lion Head.The Table Mountain is a level plateau approximately 3 kilometers (2 miles) from side to side, surrounded by steep cliffs.

Flat top of the mountain is often covered by orographic clouds, formed when the wind is directed onto the south eastern slopes of the mountain to the cooler air, where water condenses to form a table cloth called cloud.Tabel Mountain is located on the northern edge of the sandstone mountains that form the backbone of the Cape Peninsula. To the south of the main plateau is the bottom of the range called the Back Table. Atlantic coast of the peninsula, the range is known as the Twelve Apostles.

Table Mountain from the upper slopes of the mesa mountain Lion Head.The consists of Ordovician quartzitic sandstone, often referred to as Table Mountain.
Sandstones are highly resistant to erosion and other forms characteristic steep gray cliffs. Below the sandstone is a layer of basal flakes of mica, the weather is quite easy and therefore not easily visible. basement consists of folded and weight change late Precambrian Malmesbury shale, which have been intruded by Cape Granite. Bedrock is not nearly as resistant to weathering as the TMS but significant outcrops of Cape granite seen on the west side of Lion’s Head.

The main vegetation of the mountain is a unique and rich Cape fynbos, which is part of the Cape Floral Region protected areas. Protected areas inisebagai World Heritage Site, and an estimated 2200 plant species found on the mountain alone. Among these species are many types of Proteas. Remaining indigenous forest patches in a few gaps remain wet but not on the face is more open in the city, where conditions are too dry and rough to the forest. The mountain is also suffering from a serious attack of foreign plants for more than a century, with the worst invaders may be a cluster of pine trees. considerable effort has been made to eliminate alien plants.

The most common animals on the mountain is the dassie, or rock hyrax. They especially cluster around the upper cable station, near the area where tourists can get rid of the food supply. There are also hedgehogs, mongooses, snakes and turtles. Last lion was shot in the area around the year 1802. Leopards hold on the mountain until probably the 1920’s but are now locally extinct. Two smaller, secret, carnivorous night, which rooikat and vaalboskat (also called African Wild Cat vaalkat or) used in the mountains. rooikat continue to be seen on rare occasions by mountaineers vaalboskat but status is uncertain.

Himalayan tahrs, descendants tahrs fugitive who escaped from the Groote Schuur zoo in 1936, is used for the public at the top of the mountain is less accessible. As an exotic species, they almost destroyed through destruction program initiated by the South African National Parks to make way for the reintroduction of indigenous klipspringers. Until recently there was also a small number of fallow deer from Europe and sambar deer of Southeast Asia. This is especially the Rhodes Memorial area but during the 1960’s they can be found as far afield as Signal Hill. Animals may now have been eliminated or moved.

Table Mountain from Captain Cook’s ship HMS Resolution by William Hodges (1772)
De Villers reservoir, just to the left as the Bridle Path reaches the top of the original given name TableThe Back to the mountain by the first Khoi inhabitants kwaggo Hoeri.

Prehistoric people first left evidence here of more than 600,000 years ago. This evidence of Early Stone Age hunter-gatherers found in a depression near the Cape of Good Hope. Middle Stone Age people (from 200,000 to 40,000 years ago) also left evidence of their lives on the Peninsula. Fossils from around 8000 BC show that the period of the inhabitants of this region had developed bows and arrows which they use for hunting.

San (or Bushmen) hunter-gatherers relying on the beach for most of their food. This resulted in the naming of the Netherlands, Strandlopers (beach combers). About 2000 years ago Khoikhoi migrated from the north, displacing the San, to bring their cattle and sheep herds. The Khoikhoi tribe that is dominant when the Europeans sailed into Table Bay.

António de Saldanha was the first European who landed in Table Bay. He’s a big mountain to climb in 1503 and named it ‘Table Mountain’. Large cross that Portuguese navigator carved in the rock Lion’s Head is still traceable.

In 1796, during the British occupation of the Cape, Major-General Sir James Craig ordered three blockhouses to be built at Table Mountain: stronghold of King, Duke of York’s stronghold (later renamed Queen stronghold), and the stronghold of the Prince of Wales. Two of them are direruntuhan today, but the stronghold of the King is still in good condition and easily accessible from the Rhodes Memorial.

Between 1896 and 1907 five dams, the Woodhead, Hely-Hutchison, De Villiers, Alexandria and Victoria reservoirs, opened in Tables Return to Cape Town water supply needs. A ropeway ride from Camps Bay via the cliff Kasteelspoort used to ferry materials and labor (the anchor points on the old station can still be seen). There is a steam locomotive preserved from this period are stored in the Museum of taps on the top of the mountain near the dam Hely-Hutchinson.Sudah used to transport materials to the dam at the top of the mountain is flat. Cape Town water demand has since far exceeded the capacity of the dam and they are no longer an important part of the water supply.

The mountain is a part of the new Cape Peninsula National Park in the 1990’s. The park was renamed the Table Mountain National Park in 1998. Fires are common in the mountains. Recent major fire occurred in the month of January 2006, destroying a large amount of vegetation and lead to death and burning cost turis.Sebuah guilty of murder laid Britons suspected of starting the blaze.

Table Mountain Aerial Cableway Table Mountain Cableway Cable CarThe carrying passengers from the lower cable station on Tafelberg Road, about 302 m above sea level, to the plateau at the top of the mountain. Upper cable station offers views overlooking Cape Town, Table Bay and Robben Island in the north, and the Atlantic seaboard in the west and south.

Cableway construction first began in 1926, and the cableway was officially opened in 1929. In 1997, the cableway was extensively upgraded, and new cars were introduced carrying 65 instead of 25 passengers. The new cars provide a faster trip to the top, and rotate through 360 degrees during the ascent or descent, giving views of the city. Upper cable station offers viewpoints, curio shops, restaurants and walking trails of varying lengths.

Winter ascent of Table Mountain. Climbers set out on one of the popular trailsHiking on Table Mountain is popular among locals and tourists, and a number of tracks of varying difficulty are available. Because of the steep cliffs around the summit, direct ascents of the city is limited.

Platteklip Gorge, a canyon leading the center of the table, was immediately popular and direct ascent to the summit. Par for the course is approximately 2.5 hours, but carried out between 1-3 hours depending on one’s fitness level. A longer route to the top go through the Table Again, a lower area of Table Mountain south of the main plateau. From the South Suburbs, Garden Nursery Ravine and Skeleton route starts from Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden. The route via Skeleton Gorge to Beacon Maclears known as Smuts Track in memory of Jan Smuts, who is a keen hiker. Bridle path, or Jeep Track, making a more gradual ascent from Constantia Nek along the roads used to service the dam on the Back Table.

There are many other roads in the area running down the mountain slopes Popular accessed from Constantia Nek, Cecilia Forest, Kirstenbosch, Newlands Forest and Rhodes Memorial. On the Atlantic side, the most popular ascent is Kasteelspoort, a cliff overlooking Camps Bay, while the Pipe Track is a popular route with pedestrian level.

The Trails Hoerikwaggo are four hiking trails on Table Mountain between two to six days, which is operated by the South African National Parks. Natives of the region, which Khoekhoen and San tribes called Table Mountain Hoerikwaggo – “sea mountain”. Fourth Table Mountain hiking trails called the People’s Trail, Table Mountain Trail, Hiking Trail Orangekloof Trail and Top Tips.

Rock climbing
Rock climbing on Table Mountain is a very popular hobby. There are well-documented route many different levels of difficulty climbing the mountain face. The main climbs are located on the cliffs below the upper cable station. No run can be done here and only traditional climbing is permitted. Commercial groups also offer abseiling from the upper cable station.

Most of the important caves in the world occur in Table Mountain lime but unusual in having several large cave systems that have developed in the sandstone. Wynberg cave system is the largest, located in the Table Again, not far from the Jeep Track, in the mountains overlooking Orange Kloof and Hout Bay.

“Mensa” constellation
Table Mountain is the only terrestrial feature to give the name of a constellation-Mensa, means table. Constellations are visible in the Southern Hemisphere, below Orion, around midnight in mid-July. It was named by French astronomer Nicolas de Lacaille during his stay at the Cape in the mid-eighteenth century.

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